Militar Obrigatoriu: Pro-Kontra

Militar Obrigatoriu: Pro-Kontra post thumbnail image

Peta nasaun ne'ebe laiha militar, rekrutamentu obrigatoriu no seluk-seluk tan

Iha fulan Marsu foin dadaun ne’e wainhira kampanha presidensial sei hala’o kandidatu Presidensial Eis Xefe Estadu Major F-FDTL, Major Jeneral Taur Matan Ruak (TMR) fo sai proposta katak Timor-Leste perzisa militar obrigatoriu.

“Mane ho Feto foinsae Sei Tama Militar Obrigatoriu: Pro no Kontra.
Eis Xefe Estadu Major F-FDTL, Taur Matan Ruak promete, atu aplika sistema militar obrigatoriu, bainhira eleisaun hodi fo fiar sai nu’udar Xefe Estadu ba periode (2012-2017).

Tuir kandidatu numeru 2 ne’e, Juventude maka forsa ne’ebe boot iha nasaun ne’e, ne’e duni, importante tau matan ba joventude sira, tanba joventude mak sai forsa nasaun nian hodi nasaun sai forte, Joventude fraku nasaun namlele.

“Servisu militar tenke obrigatoriu, feto ka mane kompleta ona tinan 18 tenke ba tropa, ne’e hau nia kumprimisiu iha ponto 5, tau matan ba joventude,” dehan taur bainhira hala’o Kampania iha Baucau foin lalais ne’e.

Taur matan Ruak hateten, iha tinan 2007-2008, bainhira sei assume Xefe Estadu Major F-FDTL, nia hatama proposta ba Parlamentu Nasional no Governu hodi aprova politika ne’e, maibe orgaun soberania rua ne’e la konkord” (Jornal INDEPENDENTE, 12 Marsu 2012)

TMR nia politik ida ne’e simu kritika barak husi rai laran nomos rai liur. TMR mos simu kritika balun durante nia kampanha presidensial kona ba asuntu uza farda militar iha foto kampanha no akusasaun katak nia kampanha hetan suporta husi uza ema militar balun. Maibe idea sistema militar obrigatoriu ne’e idea uniku ida mak TMR fo sai ne’ebe iha ligasaun dereitamente ho asuntu militar. Nia pozisaun politik hirak seluk mak nia fo sai ne’e iha deit ligasaun ho assuntu sivil.

Agora ne’e importante tebes para analiza idea politik ida ne’e tanba kredibilidade ba idea politik ida ne’e iha ona tanba agora dadaun TMR sei avansa ba segunda ronde iha elesaun presidensial no hetan pozisaun Presidente Da Republika.

Fundasaun Mahein (FM) agora dadaun seidauk foti nia pozisaun kona ba sistema militar obrigatoriu tamba agora dadaun politika ida ne’e sidauk fo sai kompletu no seidauk iha maturidade. Maibe, wainhira governu atu foti idea politika ida ne’e governu tenke analiza no konsidera didiak idea politika ida ne’e nia impaktu negativu nomos positivu iha sociadade Timor-Leste. Ne’e duni pozisaun balun mak hanesa iha kraik ne’e;

1. Politika ida ne’e sei fo disiplina ba joven sira.

2. Politika ida ne’e sei hanorin matenek moris nian ba foinsae sira.

3. Politika ida ne’e fo oportunidade ba foinsae sira atu hetan esperiensia ne’ebe laiha sira nia vila no sub-distritu.

4. Foinsae barak ne’ebe hetan ona idade 18 hakarak politika ida ne’e.

5. Inan-aman barak mak hakarak oportunidade ida ne’e ba sira nia oan.

6. Politika ida ne’e mak sei fo oportunidade ba foinsae sira atu eperiensa espiritu nasionalismu Timor nian iha Timor tomak.

7. Politika ida ne’e mak sei hamate sukuismu no regionalismu no kontribui ba identidade nasional

8. Politika ida ne’e sei fo matenek no esperiensia balun ne’ebe mak foinsae sira bele utiliza fali iha sira nia edukasaun ou buka serbisu nian.

9. Politika ida ne’e mak sei fo vontade partisipasaun iha organizasaun nasional no sei hamate oposisaun no resiste ba institusaun nasional.

10. Politika ida ne’e sei hamenus influensia husi grupu arte marsial, bandidus gang sira, krime no droga ba foinsae sira.

Hirak ne’ebe mak kontra politika ida ne’e mak hanesan:

1. Ho populasaun ida ne’ebe mak ho ema 40,000 ne’ebe mak ho idade 18 tinan, politika ida ne’e sei gastu liu (tanba governu tenke selu kareta, mina kareta, han han, farda, seluk-seluk tan).

2. Politika ida ne’e sei kria infra-estrutura militar ida ke boot tebtebes maibe ladiak ba nasaun.

3. Timor-Leste la perzisa populasaun joven ida ne’ebe mak hetan treinamentu no matenek husi militar
(hanesan treinamentu iha area armamentos, funu, no kombate ho liman, etc).

4.Politika ida ne’e perzisa kilat barak maibe oinsa mak atu kontrola no manega kilat hirak ne’e.

5. Politika ida ne’e bele kontra lei inan wainhira lei militar obrigatoriu fo esepsaun ba ema balun tanba assuntu religiaun, politik, saude ou moral.

6. Politika ida ne’e la tuir planu governu AMP nian iha area F-FDTL Forca 2020 ou Planu Strategia
Desenvolvementu Nasional Governu nian.

7. Agora dadaun lei iha area defeza lainklui artigu roma ne’ebe hasara politika ida ne’e.

8. Agora ne’e assuntu hanesan edukasaun, infra-estrutura no desenvolvementu ekonomi mak importante liu ba nasaun ida ne’e.

Wainhira ita halo analiza ida kona ba lei militar obrigatoriu iha nasaun seluk ita sei repara katak maioria estadu iha mundu ne’e la uza politika ida ne’e. Nasaun hirak balun ne’ebe mak uza duni lei militar obrigatoriu inklui mos estadu avansadu demokrasia liberal (Denmark no Norwegia), estadu ne’ebe mak sei iha transisaun laran (Egyptu) no mos estadu ditadora (Burma)

Sira nia dadus mak ne’e:

• Nasaun hamutuk 19 mak la iha forsa defeza
• Nasaun hamutuk 99 mak la esforsu rekrutamentu
• Nasaun hamutuk 5 mak iha rekrutamentu kuandu iha sirkumstansia espesial
• Nasaun hamutuk 8 mak iha sistema servisu militar obrigatoriu nomos voluntariu
• Nasaun hamutuk 13 mak uza opsaun servisu sivil, laos militar, no la kombate
• Nasaun hamutuk 23 mak iha sistema servisu militar obrigatoriu to’o tinan ida ou menus
• Nasaun hamutuk 11 mak limita servisu militar ba tinan 18 deit
• Nasaun hamutuk 31 mak servisu militar laliu fulan 18 nia laran
• Nasaun 1 deit mak atu halakon sistema rekrutamentu iha future besik mai.

Fundasaun Mahein nota ona opiniaun barak ne’ebe fo sai ona kona ba politika militar obrigatoriu i rekonese mos katak sei iha posibilidade para atu hetan komprimisu balun para atu satisfeita opiniaun hirak ne’ebe kontra no apoiu. Exemplu ida mak hanesan halo rekrutamentu nasional mais labele limita deit servisu ba iha militar maibe fo mos opsaun seluk hanesan agrikultura, infra-estrutura, desenvolvimentu ekonomi nomos militar.

Nune’e mos Fundasaun Mahein hakarak fo sai katak sistema servisu military obrigatoriu ne’e komplikadu liu tanba foinsae sira iha Timor barak tebtebes nomos populasaun sira tenke iha liberdade atu hili opsaun ida ne’ebe mak nia hakarak. Ne’ebe diak liu, se bele, uza deit sistema servisu militar voluntariu.

Ida tan mak hakarak fo hatene deit katak Fundasaun Mahein rekonese idea politika ida ne’e iha ligasaun ho assuntus politikus, adminsitrativu no orsanmenut nian ne’ebe laos fasil maibe komplikadu tebtebes. Ne’e duni Fundasaun Mahein fo appela ba ema hotu ne’ebe karik sei involve iha prosesu ba idea politika ida ne’e atu fo konsiderasaun ba aspetus hotu ne’ebe positivu i negativu mos.

Mandatory Military Service: For and Against.

Recently, in March 2012 during the election campaign,presidential candidate, former Chief of the Defence Force, Major General TaurMatanRuak (TMR) proposed the idea that Timor-Leste needs mandatory national military service.

INDEPENDENTE

Taur Matan Ruak: Mandatory military service for young males or female

Monday, 12 March 2012

TMR promised that he would institute mandatory military service if he is elected president for the period of 2012-2017. He said that the youth is the nation’s strength, therefore it is important to look after them. Weak youth will lead to a weak nation.

“Military service will be mandatory, whether female or male. Anyone over 18 years of age must join the military. This is my policy number 5, to pay attention to the youth,” TMR said during his rally in Baucau.

TMR said that he had already made a similar proposal to the National Parliament and the government between 2007 and 2008. However both organs rejected his proposal.

Original Tetum story:

Jornal INDEPENDENTE
Segunda, 12 Marsu 2012

“TaurMatanRuak: JovenFeto Ka Mane Sei Tama MilitarObrigatoriu”

Eis Xefe Estadu Major F-FDTL, Taur Matan Ruak promete, atu aplika sistema military obrigatoriu, bainhira eleisaun hodi fo fiar sai nu’udar Xefe Estadu ba periode (2012-2017).

Tuir kandidatu numeru 2 ne’e, Juventude maka forsa ne’ebe boot iha nasaun ne’e, ne’e duni, importante tau matan ba joventude sira, tanba joventude mak sai forsa nasaun nian hodi nasaun sai forte, Joventude fraku nasaun namlele.

“Servisu military tenke obrigatoriu, feto ka mane kompleta ona tinan 18 tenke ba tropa, ne’e hau nia kumprimisiu iha ponto 5, tau matan ba joventude,” dehan taur bainhira hala’o Kampania iha Baucau foin lalai sne’e.

Taur matan Ruak hateten, iha tinan 2007-2008, bainhira sei assume Xefe Estadu Major F-FDTL, nia hatama proposta ba Parlamentu Nasional no Governu hodi aprova politika ne’e, maibe orgaun soberania rua ne’e la konkorda.

There was an almost immediate criticism of the idea by many quarters both inside and outside Timor-Leste. The TMR campaign has also been criticized for putting forward a militarized approach to the campaign with the use of camouflage uniforms in campaign posters along with allegations that the military or some of its personnel were assisting in campaigning. However, the military service proposal was the only direct policy position on military matters that the candidate TMR put forward. Most of his campaign platform was very civilian in nature.

Now that TMR has advanced to the second round in the presidential elections it is important to review this proposal as it now has much more credibility as there is a now a much stronger chance that TMR will become President of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste.

Fundasaun Mahein does not at this stage take a position on the matter of mandatory military service as it is as yet an unformed and not yet fully mature policy position. However, such a policy if it ever comes to a serious discussion at Government levels requires very careful analysis and consideration of its potentially positive and negative effects on Timorese society.

Those who are in favour of its application put forward a number of arguments suggesting it is a positive approach. The below is just a number of such positions;

1. That it would provide structure and discipline to the youth
2. That it would provide important life skills to the youth
3. That it would provide opportunities for the youth to experience Timor-Leste beyond the limits of their villages and subdistricts
4. That most 18 year olds want these opportunities
5. That most parents want these opportunities for their children
6. That service of this sort would bind Timorese from all walks of life together in a nationalist experience
7. That service of this kind would reduce sukuism and regionalism in Timor-Leste, and contribute to the building of national identity
8. That it would provide skills which would improve future educational and employment opportunities
9. That it would infuse in youth the sense of participation in national organizations rather than resistance or opposition to national institutions.
10. That it would minimize the influence of MAGs, gangs, crime and drugs etc on the youth

Those who are against the policy of national military service put forward a number of arguments suggesting it is a negative approach. The below is just a number of such positions

1. With around 40,000 18 year olds leaving school each year it is potentially veryexpensive(food, fuel, uniforms, buildings, vehicles etc)
2. That it would create a massive national military infrastructure which is unhealthy
3. That Timor-Leste does not need a youth population trained in military skills (ie weapons, warfighting, hand to hand combat)
4. That it would require purchase and therefore management and control of large numbers of weapons.
5. That mandatory service would possibly be unconstitutional if it does allow for religious, moral, political or health exceptions
6. That it does not fit into current Government planning either through the F-FDTL Forca 2020 plan or the AMP Government Strategic Development plan.
7. That current laws relating to the defence force do not include provision for such a policy
8. That health, education, infrastructure, economic development are higher priorities

Of interest is that when we analyse military service in the rest of the world it is clear that most countries do not have it. But those that do are a mixture of highly developed western liberal democracy countries (ie Denmark, and Norway), states in transition (ie Egypt) as well as a number of long time dictatorships (ie Burma)

Here is a summary

• 19 countries have No defence forces
• 99 countries have No enforced conscription
• 5 countries have Conscription only in special circumstances
• 8 countries have both compulsory and voluntary military service
• 13 countries have Civilian, unarmed or non-combatant service option
• 23 countries have Military service limited to 1 year or less
• 11 countries have Military service limited to 18 months
• 31 countries have Military service longer than 18 months
• 1 countries Conscription to be abolished in the near future

Fundasaun Mahein takes note of the differing positions on mandatory military service in Timor-Leste and suggests that there may be compromise, which satisfies those who are both for and against national military service. Such as making national service a requirement, but not necessarily through the military exclusively. For example it could be through your engagement in agriculture, or infrastructure, or business development as well as through the military.

Also Fundasaun Mahein suggests that mandatory service for all school leavers may also not be possible given their large numbers and the fact that each adult citizen deserves a right to choose what they will do with their lives. So rather than a mandatory service provision it may be more suitable to make it voluntary national service.

Fundasaun Mahein recognizes that the political, administrative and financial issues around this policy are very complicated and urges all parties not to dismiss or approve such a potentially wide-ranging initiative without considering all of the positive and negative aspects.

4 thoughts on “Militar Obrigatoriu: Pro-Kontra”

  1. Aplica sistema militar obrigatorio ne hu senti iha contra ona systema demokratika.

    Sistem demokratiko nia definisaun katak,,,ema halo saida deit tuir sira nia hakarak, enta nia ne joven, labarik ,ferik ou katuas sira. se ita alplica fali sistema ida ne entaun ita contra ona sisteam demokratica.

  2. Hare ba impaktu pozitivu husi politika ida ne’e, hau hanoin katak bele no presiza duni atu implementa iha ita nia nasaun. Nasaun ne’ebe maka nia ema liu-liu joven sira iha disiplina iha posibilidade atu dezenvolve diak liu tan. Foti ezemplu Singapura, nasaun kiik ida maibe dezenvolvidu tamba nia ema sira iha disiplina makaas. Situasaun agora iha Timor Leste, iha problema boot ho disiplina oras. Ita sei uza buat ne’ebe Rezime Suharto rai hela ‘Jam karet’. Ida ne’e bele elimina ho politika ida ne’e.
    Kona ba osan, diak liu gasta ba nasaun nia diak duke ema balun deit (koruptor sira) mak han.

  3. Hau hakarak dehan deit katak Timor oan sei presisa mak Edukasaun doque Militar, ita hare deit foin tuir beladiri deit sira aplika kedan satan militar

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