Iha lideransa to’o loron restaurasaun Independensia iha loron 20 de Maio 2016, FM sei aprezenta prefillu badak balun kona-bá fatin importante sira iha luta ba independensia iha Timor-Leste.
Foho Matebian iha Munisipiu Baucau listadu hanesan foho ne’ebé aas terseiru Timor nian iha nia metru 2316, Maibe mos ida ne’ebé hakohak no dalas liu, nomos foho-kadoek iha nasaun ne’e tomak. Foho ne’e sagradu liu husi ninia asosiasaun ho selebrasaun loron Matebian nian iha loron 2 Novembru, nomos hanesan fatin deskansa ikus vitima barak husi akontesimentu brutál husi ema Indonezia iha fim tinan 1970 nian.
Enkuantu forsa Indonesia nian namkari ona iha inisiu konflitu entre tinan 1978 nia klaran Indonezia hasai no dudu sira nia forsa sira iha parte leste nian.
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Forsa armada Indonezia nian “Opersaun Skylight”, ho objetivu obriga lideransa importante FRETILIN nian hodi entrega-an no mos ema sivil sira hela iha Zona Libertadas administrasaun balun FRETILIN nian.
Iha atake kordena ida, forsa Indonezia hale’u foho Matebian husi parte hotu, fazeadamente obriga komunidade FRETILIN ba iha baze ne’ebé ki’ik, maibe fortemente defende maka’as nia iha foho. Lakleur deit material kordenasaun superioridade husi forsa Indonesia komesa hatudu, no partikularmente atake husi aero (aviaun) sobu rezistensia no povu sivil sira iha sira nia subar fatin. Kuaze fulan rua nia laran Indonezia bombardia foho liu husi atake aviaun ne’ebé sira hola husi Estadus Unidos Amerika, oho dasak tropa FRETILIN nomos ema sivil sira, dalabarak liu hakoi sira iha fatuk-kuak sira ne’ebé sira subar ba. Testemuna sira hato’o katak Indonezia sira dala ruma uza tipu bomba hanesan ho napálm, ne’ebé belit iha ema nia kulit no kauza moras ne’ebe labele augenta, bele oho no halo vitima aleija. Mos ohin loron rai-suut matan husi bombardiamentu haree iha foho-lolon.
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Hasoru bombardiamentu ne’e FRETILIN laiha opsaun alende entrega baze nomos ema sivil rihun ba rihun maka hakmahan iha loron 20 Novembru 1978.
Derota iha Matebian hanesan halo difesiansia ka hamate FRETILIN/FALINTIL no rezistensia organizadu no agravadu liu ho saudozu presidenti Fretilin Nicolau Lobato iha loron 31 Dezembru 1978. Pior liu-tan maka tratamentu ba ema barak ne’ebe entrega-an husi Matebian ba Indonezia. Mezmu ema balun husik dadauk ona depois sira kaptura, seluk fali tahan hela no tortura. Ema barak maka deskonfia hanesan membru husi FRETILIN/FALINTIL, dalabarak haree ba sira nia fu’uk ne’ebe naruk no sira nia forsa fiziku, halibur hodi oho. Fatin asasinatu ida lokaliza iha Quelicai, Baucau ne’ebe maizumenus ema 59 to’o 300 mak hetan oho.
Meske hatauk tebes “horrors” husi Matebia, esperansa ki’ik balun mosu ho faktus katak Xanana Gusmao konsege halai sai husi ema nia hale’un ne’e no ikus mai akumula nomos lidera fila-fali rezistensia restu sira hanesan forsa girilla. Atake Matebian reprezenta hanesan pontu estratejia ida iha konflitu, ne’ebe depois derota ho raan mos hamosu dalan ba vitoria.
Bazeia ba Comissão de Acolhimento, Verdade e Reconciliação de Timor Leste (CAVR) Chega! Relatoriu (2005), kona-ba foho Matebian refere ba periodu 3 no 7.2 husi relatoriu ne’e. Disponivel iha ne’e: http://www.cavr-timorleste.org/en/chegaReport.htm
Significant Landmarks in the Struggle for Independence
In the lead up to Restoration of Independence Day on 20 May 2016, FM will present a number of short profiles on places of significance in the struggle for Independence in Timor-Leste.
Mount Matebian in the district of Bacau is listed as Timor’s third highest peak at 2316 metres, but also encompasses one of the largest and most rugged and mountain ranges in whole country. The mountain is sacred through its association with All Souls Day celebrated on 2 November, but also as the final resting place of many victims of the brutal attacks by the Indonesians in the late 1970s.
Whereas Indonesian forces had been approximately evenly dispersed in the early part of the conflict, by mid 1978 the Indonesians shifted the focus of their forces eastward. The Indonesian Army’s “Operation Skylight”, aimed to force the surrender of key FRETILIN leaders as well as the civilian population living in the few remaining FRETILIN administered zona libertadas. In a coordinated attack, the Indonesian forces encircled Matebian from all sides, gradually forcing the FRETILIN community into a small but heavily defended base on the mountain. Soon the coordinated material superiority of the Indonesian forces began to show, and in particular the use of airstrikes devastated the resistance and civilians in their hideouts. For around two months the Indonesians bombed the mountain using attack aircraft they had purchased from the United States, indiscriminately killing both FALINTIL troops and civilians, often burying them in the caves where they were hiding. Eye witnesses reported that the Indonesians sometimes used a type of bomb similar to napalm, that sticks to human skin and caused intolerable pain when it kills and maims victims. Even today the many craters from the bombardment are visible on the hillside. In the face of the bombardment FRETILIN had no choice but to surrender the base and the tens of thousands of civilians it was sheltering on 22 November 1978.
The defeat at Matebian was a crippling blow to FRETILIN/FALINTIL and the organised resistance that was soon compounded by the death of FRETILIN President Nicolau Lobato on 31 December 1978. Worse was the treatment of many of the people who surrendered from Matebian to the Indonesians. Although some people were soon released after their capture, others were held in detention and tortured. Many others who were suspected of being members of FRETILIN or FALINTIL, sometimes based purely on the length of their hair or their physical strength, were summarily executed. A notorious murder site was located in Quelicai, Baucau, where at least 59 and up to 300 people were executed.
Despite the horrors of Matebian, some tiny hope emerged from the fact that Xanana Gusmão was able to escape the encirclement and eventually piece together and lead the remnants of the resistance as a gorilla force.
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The Battle of Matebian therefore represented a strategic turning point in the conflict, where upon the bloody defeat also emerged the path to victory.
Based on the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in Timor-Leste’s (CAVR) Chega! Report (2005), for more on Matebian refer to Chapters 3 and 7.2 of the Report available here: http://www.cavr-timorleste.org/en/chegaReport.htm