Bai-bain ona tempu kampañia hanesan eventu boot ida ne’ebé partidu polítiku sira mobiliza rekursu hotu-hotu iha períodu propaganda eleitoral nian hodi hato’o sira nia programa ba eleitor sira. Rekursu hirak ne’e inklui involvimentu labarik sira nian iha kampañia nian no utiliza labarik sai hanesan instrumentu animasaun ba kampañian nian. Lolos iha eventu sira nune’e bandu labarik sira nia involvimentu no seidauk to’o iha idade ne’ebé primete involve iha atividade polítika no partidária. Konstituisaun RDTL no Kodigu labarik nian hatete katak ema ne’ebé ho idade tinan 17 mai kraik konsidera hanesan labarik no limita direitu atu tuir eleisaun no ema ne’ebe iha direitu atu involve iha partidu politiku maka sira ne’ebé ho idade 17 ba leten no sira iha direitu atu hili.
Esperiensia liu dadauk ne’e iha kampañia ba kandidatu Prezidente Repúblika nian hatudu partidu polítiku sira involve labarik sira iha komvoiu kareta husi fatin ida ba fatin seluk, fahe atributu partidu nian ba labarik sira hanesan faru, pamfletu hodi tuir kampania no sai hanesan animador durante kampañia. Maske involvimentu labarik sira nian nune’e risku ka ameasa boot ba sira nia vida, wainhira labarik partisipa iha kampaña ho konvoiu no mosu asidenti trafiku ruma ka violênsia ruma durante periodu kampañia nian. Iha ne’ebé konflitu barak liu involve labarik minoridade sira halo violensia iha dalan públiku sira. Ikus-ikus ne’ebaku malu entre membru GrupuArte Marsiais nian aumenta maka’as buka malu atu sparing kauze loron-loron husi video ne’ebéupload ba Facebook.
Grupu Arte Marsiais ne’ebé Estadu taka nia atividade, partidu polítiku sira kuaze rekruta hotu nia membru sira, ne’e posibilidade boot membru sira bele provoka malu aumenta durante kampañia no eleisaun. Liga ba ida ne’e,esperiensia liu dadauk iha Eleisaun Prezidensial 2017 insidenti ida hahu iha abertura kampañia nian iha loron 3 Marsu 2017. Konfrontu entre apoiante kandidatu Prezidente Repúblika Francisco Guterres “Lú-Olo” no apoiante ka militante Antonio da Conceição “Kalohan” iha Raikotu-Dili ema na’in tolu hetan kanek, inklui estraga uma no kareta no sasan seluk. Tuir deklarasaun PNTL nian katak vitima sira ne’ebé kanek, ida labarik ho idade 14.
Rekrutamentu ba Grupo Arte Marsiais sira ne’ebé dadaun ne’e barak liu labarik kiik sira. Sira nia hanoin katak tamba lei proteze labarik sira no la hetan kastigu, halo sira latauk atu halo problema.Tuir deklarasaun husi Ministru Justisa iha fulan Abril 2017 hatete labarik hamutuk 22 makaiha prizaun Becora no Gleno. Maske labarik sira lolos la prezisa ba prizaun ema boot nian, sira so prezisa deit Sentru Rehabilitasaun, ne’ebé ohin loron seidauk establese.
Nune’e involve labarik sira iha kampania politika nu’udar toman ida ne’ebé akontense iha kampania sira iha períodu eleisaun nian.Fundasaun Mahein (FM)preokupa labarik sira sei hetan inflêunsia negativu no bele mos iha risku no ameasa ba sira nia vida.Iha tempu ida ne’ebé kondisaun politika seidauk maduru.
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Ikus liu FM rekomenda orgaun eleitoral sira hanesan STAE, CNE no Komisaun Direitu ba Labarik atu alerta ba partidu politiku sira kona-bá involve labarik sira iha kamapañia ka propoganda eleitoral. Mantein lei no regra kampañia nian no aplika leiba iregularidade sira iha kampañia.
Protecting Children’s Rights during the 2017 National Elections
During the electoral campaigning period, it is common for all the political parties (ParPol) to mobilize their resources in order to promote their policy platforms and garner popular support. However, this has also included mobilizing children to support their campaigning. This is illegal under both the Constitution and the Penal Code of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (RTDL), which consider children under 17 to be minors and criminally liable from the age of 16, and furthermore that those under 17 cannot vote, participate in the electoral process or join political parties.
During the campaigning period for the Presidential Election, ParPol’s were known to have included children in their campaigning convoys, when moving between campaign locations. ParPol clothing and pamphlets were also worn and distributed respectively by these children. Apart from breaching the Penal Code and Constitution, this presents a risk for the safety and security of minors involved in these activities, due to both potential traffic incidents and outbreaks of violence that may occur during the campaigning period. Fighting between minors involved with Martial Arts Groups (MAG’s) has been increasing recently, with videos of such fights being uploaded on Facebook serving as further provocation.
Although the State has prohibited the activities of MAG’s, some ParPol’s have been known to recruit MAG members, in order to provoke and intimidate their political opponents through the use of threats and violence. Such an activity took place during the start of the Presidential Election campaigning period on March 3, 2017. There was a confrontation between supporters of Presidential candidates Francisco Guterres Lu-Olo and Antonio da Conceição “Kalohan” in Raikotu, Dili. This confrontation saw three people injured, and damage to vehicles and property. The PNTL statement on this incident indicated that one of the injured was a 14-year old child.
The majority of MAG recruitment involves minors, who are told by their recruiters that they’re not criminally liable and won’t be arrested by the National Police of Timor-Leste (PNTL). However, according to a declaration by the Ministry of Justice in April 2017, around 22 children are currently in prison in Becora and Gleno. This raises two concerns, namely if these are children under the age of 16 and not criminally liable, and additionally that they are imprisoned alongside adults. These children should not be imprisoned alongside adults, and instead a rehabilitation center should be established for both their protection and rehabilitation.
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The involvement of children in the campaigning period before elections has been commonplace and ongoing in Timor-Leste.
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Fundasaun Mahein’s (FM) concern is that these children will be negatively influenced by their experience participating in the campaigning period, and that their safety and security could be undermined in a political environment that is still maturing.
Finally, FM recommends that STAE, CNE and the Commission on the Rights of Children inform and emphasize to political parties that the involvement of children in their campaigning is not only illegal but unethical, as it endangers the lives of children, established poor norms for their future political participation and undermines the legitimacy of the political process. Regulations regarding campaigning must be adhered too, and irregularities prevented for a safe, secure and democratic National Election.