Karik Ema ho Defisiensia Ida Iha Direitu Hanesan Hodi Hetan Seguransa no Justisa Iha Timor-Leste?

Karik Ema ho Defisiensia Ida Iha Direitu Hanesan Hodi Hetan Seguransa no Justisa Iha Timor-Leste? post thumbnail image
(Foto: Internet)

(Foto: Internet)

Fundasaun Mahein dadauk ne’e rona ona kona-bá kazu ida involve feto ho defisiensia ida (moras mental) husi area rural Timor nian, ne’ebé konforme ema sira dehan esperiente abuzu seksual. Maski hetan suporta husi nia familia no ONG lokal ida ne’ebé servisu kona-bá ema ho defisiensia nian ne’ebé lori kazu ne’e hodi hetan atensaun husi PNTL, polisia lakohi atu investiga kazu krime ida ne’e tamba sira hetan nia evidensia ne’ebé “fraku”. Feto ne’e hetan konsellu envezde ba no buka tratamentu ba ninia moras antes nia bele hato’o fali reklamasaun ne’e. Feto ne’e nia familia nomos ONG ne’e hirus katak polisia la lori feto ne’e gravamente tamba deit ema ho defisiensia.

Kazu ne’e ilustra ba diskriminasaun iha ne’ebé PNTL la aplika resposta hanesan ba ema ida ho defisiensia hanesan sira hakarak sidadaun ida la iha defisiensia. FM hatene ona kona-bá istoria involvimentu krime hasoru ema ho defisiensia ho problema hanesan asesu ba justisa.

Ofisialmente ema hamutuk 42.243 mak iha defisiensia iha Timor-Leste, mezmu ema barak konsidera avaliasaun ne’ebé la ofisial hamutuk 176.400 ne’e numeru ida ne’ebé lolos nian. Serteza katak ema ho defisiensia hela iha Munisípiu hotu-hotu no area sira iha Timor-Leste.

Maske konstituisaun espesifikamente prepara katak sidadaun ho defisiensia ida tenki aproveita direitu hanesan mos sidadaun sira-seluk, abilidade husi nasaun hodi apoia direitu nia valor iha ne’ebé bele kestiona, ezemplu pursentu 72 husi ema ho defisiensia nunka atende eskola.

Intermus kona-ba sistema justisa, Investigasaun International indika katak ema ho imparidade tipu hanesan intelektual, kognetivu ka dezemvolve sira hodi involve hanesan iha parte rua ne’e mak vítima no suspeitu kona-bá krime ne’ebé barak liu duke individu sira ne’ebé la iha defisiensia.

Involvimentu makas husi ema ho defisiensia sira hanesan suspetu/ofendidu mak sorin ida liga ho faktus ne’ebé sira labele komprende katak sira involve iha atividade krime no dalabalun fasil hodi manipula no “sai kolaborador” husi kriminozu-sira.

Intermus kona-bá vitima-sira, relatoriu ONU nian ida indika katak klasifikasaun kona-bá insidente sira hanesan (estraga feto, seksu, insidente agravadu) ba ema ho defisiensia iha Timor-Leste ne’ebé besik ba dala tolu klasifikadu entre ema la iha defisiensia sira (klasifikasaun ida ne’e konsistente ho estatístika iha nasaun seluk hanesan US).

Tamba ho numeru a’as husi ema ho defisiensia sira ne’e katak sei halai hamutuk ho PNTL iha Timor mezmu vítima ka suspeitu sira, ida ne’e importante katak ofisiais polisia sira mak ho matenek naton hodi komprende no apoiu sira nia direitu báziku kona-bá seguransa ho justisa.

Desde tinan 2000 polisia ONU no depois PNTL iha ona unidade espesifiku hanaran vulnerabel person unit (VPU) hodi garante vítima sira hosi abuzu seksual, violensia domestiku, labarik-sira, defisiensia-sira no sira-seluk ne’ebé ejize diferente maneira polítika ida ne’ebé ho adekuadu ne’ebé fo atensaun ba. Maibe ho ninia intensaun diak VPU ne’e iha pesoal ne’ebé limitadu no rekursu sira no foka liu-liu kona-bá asuntu domestiku jeneru-baze violensia.

Kona-bá asuntu rekursu hirak ne’e, ida ne’e la bele sees hosi no labele espesializa ofisiais polisia sira ne’ebé sei responde ba insidente sira ne’ebé involve ema ho defisiensia (hanesan kazu ne’ebé deskreve iha leten). Polisia baibain la simu treinamentu báziku ruma kona-bá defisiensia hodi nune’e sira nia resposta sei la propriu hodi suporta ema ho defisiensia ka apoiu sira nia direitu . Tuir lolos problema ida ne’e identifika ona husi PNTL sira rasik iha tinan haat (4) liu-ba iha relatoriu UNHCR nian ida ne’ebé hateten “polisia ho espesifikamente indika nesesariu ida kona-bá treinamentu ba ofisiais ne’ebé laos VPU, iha metodu hodi servisu ho vítima ka suspeitu sira ne’ebé iha moras mental ka defisiensia fíziku”.

Planu estratejiku PNTL 2014-18 fo koñesementu nesesariu hodi hasa’e kapasidade kona-bá operasaun polisia nian hodi proteje sidadaun vulnerabel sira, maibe ida ne’e la espesifikamente enderesu asuntu kona-bá ema ho defisiensia. FM fiar katak relasaun ho exstensaun kona-bá interasaun entre ema ho defisiensia no PNTL la ho estratejia ida ne’e PNTL iha kbiit ho esteitementu misaun atu “defende direitu no liberdade ba sidadaun sira no hametin mandatu kona-bá konstituisaun”.

FM rekomenda hanesan asuntu urjenti katak:

1. PNTL komesa halo dialogu ida ho organizasaun nasional ba ema ho defisiensia sira hodi nune’e bele dezemvolve estratejia ida hodi hasa’e interaksaun entré ema ho defisiensia no polisia.

2. PNTL atu hamoris mandatu ba treinamentu báziku ba ofisiais sira hotu dadaun ne’e no futuru kona-bá direitu ema ho defisiensia sira, no estabelese prosesu mandatu no estandarte kona-bá ligasaun ho parte vítima no suspeitu sira ho defisiensia.

3. PNTL atu monitoriza, halo investigasaun no foti asaun propriu hasoru ofisiais polisia sira ne’ebé la apoiu ba direitus humanus kona-bá ema ho defisiensia sira.

Do people with a disability have equal rights to safety and justice in Timor-Leste?

Fundasaun Mahein (FM) has recently heard of a case involving a woman with disability (mental illness) from rural Timor who allegedly experienced sexual abuse. Despite the support of her family and a local disability NGO to bring the case to the attention of the PNTL, the police refused to begin investigating the crime because they found her evidence “weak”. The woman was advised instead to go and seek treatment for her illness before she could re-lodge the complaint. The woman’s family and NGO are angry that the police did not take the woman seriously because of her disability.

The case illustrates discrimination in that the PNTL did not apply the same response for a person with a disability as they would a citizen without a disability. FM is aware of stories involving crimes against people with a disability with similar problems accessing justice.

Officially 48,243 people have a disability in Timor-Leste although many people consider an unofficial estimate of 176,400 a more accurate number. Certainly, people with disability live throughout all districts and areas of the country.

Although the Constitution specifically provides that a disabled citizen ‘shall enjoy the same rights as all other citizens’, the ability of the nation to uphold this right is questionable where, for example, 72 per cent of people with disability have never attended school.

In terms of the Justice System, International research indicates that people with intellectual, cognitive or developmental disabilities get involved as both victims and suspects/offenders of crime far more often than individuals without disabilities.

The high involvement of people with disability as suspects/offenders is partly due to the fact that they may not understand that they are involved in criminal activity and/or are often easy to manipulate and “befriend” by criminals.

In terms of victimization, a UN Report indicates that rate of assault (e.g. rape, sexual assault, aggravated assault) for people with disability in Timor is nearly three times the rate among persons without disabilities (this rate is consistent with statistics in other countries such as the US).

Because of this high number of people with disability that will interact with the PNTL across Timor as either victims or suspects, it is essential that police officers are adequately trained to understand and uphold their basic rights of safety and justice.

Since 2000 UN Police and then the PNTL has had a specific Vulnerable Persons Unit (VPU) to ensure that victims of sexual abuse, domestic violence, children, the disabled, and others who require a different policing approach are adequately cared for. Despite its good intention the VPU is understaffed and resourced, and focused mainly on the issue of domestic gender-based violence.

Due to these resourcing issues it is inevitably regular and not specialized police officers that will respond to incidents involving people with disability (as in the case outlined above). Regular police do not receive any basic training regarding disability and so it is more than likely that their response will not properly support people with disability or uphold their rights. Indeed this exact problem was identified by the PNTL themselves four years ago in a UNHR Report which stated, “Police specifically indicated a need for training for non-VPU officers, on methods to work with victims or suspects who have mental or physical disabilities.”

The PNTL Strategic Plan 2014-18 acknowledges the need to improve the capacity of operational police to protect vulnerable citizens, however, it does not specifically address the issue of disability. FM believes that due to the extent of interaction between people with disability and the PNTL, without such a strategy the PNTL is in breach of its stated mission to “Defend the rights and liberties of citizens and strengthen the mandate of the Constitution”.

FM therefore recommends as a matter of urgency that the:

1. PNTL start a dialogue with national disability organizations in order to develop a strategy to improve the interaction between people with disability and the police.

2. PNTL to enact mandatory basic training for all current and future officers on the rights of people with a disability, and to establish mandatory processes and standards for dealing with both victims and suspects with a disability.

3. PNTL to monitor, investigate and take appropriate action against police officers who do not uphold the human rights of people with disability.

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